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Swachh Bharat Mission (June-2020)-Landfill Reclamation Precursor Study-Methodology

What is a Precursor Study? -"The treatment & disposal of Legacy MSW can be done by Bio-remediation. A total station survey or drone mapping of any landfill/dumping site must be done prior to start of the project. Hence, it is suggested to ensure a precursor study with history of the site, compositional analysis of waste. Site environment parameters such as baseline study of heavy metals in surface and subsurface soils and water, rainfall, soil type, surface hydrology, topography, wind direction etc. shall be studied before and after bioremediation. Periodic study should also to be carried out after completion of bioremediation to check for any adverse effects in the surrounding area."

Obtaining Methodology: Initially our research team had conducted workshops with the help from State institute of Urban Developement at Mysore, regarding precursor study and deriving the methodology for reclaimation of legacy waste site as per the scheme under Swachh Bharat Mission. Our research team joined hands with 152 environmental engineers to devise a methodology in order to obtain a detailed report. One of the Karnataka ULB team has appointed Aerial Geomatics to provide Drone Survey of Solid waste dumped in TMC Site, the report includes area, height, quantity of solid waste dumped, descriptive maps with details of boundaries, marking of surrounding area such as roads, canals and habitation etc., and further site features like Longitude & Latitude co-ordinates and map history of the site, Compositional analysis of waste, nearby soil test, water test and Rain fall analysis data, hydrology maps, topography, wind analysis etc. at TMC site.

Our Research: A detailed report on Soil study, hydrology study, rainfall data and wind analysis is extracted for 2 km radius as well as 5 Km radius of the site to understand adverse ecological changes and effects of the dump site along with the composition of the legacy waste.

Case Study: To begin with we identified the site at Muddebihal and Developed a toposheet data containing details of the current environment. We then superimposed the toposheet over the old maps of the site to observe the chronology of the site and the surroundings and to locate any nearby water streams. In which we inferenced that up until 2005 the site had no pit for dumping, but when traced back to 2009 the 1st pit was dug for dumping, later in 2011 an another pit was dug. By 2021 totally 3 pits were dug for dumping. We compared the maps to the Geo satellite images & UAV survey over the dump site is conducted. With the help of UAV survey and photogrammetry data we produced the orthomosaic and Digital Surface Model images of the dump site area. Since the pits were built in different time periods so it was necessary to study the ecological changes.

With our observation we were able understand the depth and extent of site to be reclaimed.

2005 2009 2021

Volumetric Quantification:

Using 3D Point Cloud data we processed it in 3D model and did a volumetric quantification of the Dump site area and derived the Terrain 3D Area, Total volume, Cut and Fill volume of the 3 pits and dump area. Volume Quantification Sections of the site is also given to know the depth of the site and we derived the total Solid Waste dumped in metric tones.

Recommendations :

As this study should be carried out periodically. We suggested the ULB to take up a extended town profile and demographic profile in order to predict the waste production from the 1st mile and finding the opportunity to establish the innovative technology and the solid waste management system for individual town or city parameters


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